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Milesones In The Emergence Of A City

Introduction

If you are a regular reader of our Heeley's history booklets, you will be familiar with the name of Mr. Don Ross, for he has contributed many items for inclusion in several of them, which have been most welcome and interesting. As a man born and brought up in Heeley arid with a keen interst in history, he has enjoyed spending some of his spare time in retirement in looking up various aspects of past events which are of local significance. From finding out about the early years of Heely, as a village, he went on to find out about how it was made a part of Sheffield, and what changes arose from that. Eventually, what started off as a list of dates with reference to Heeley gradually expanded to include Sheffield arid all the other villages that were included in it. So, his list expanded, and then he began to wonder what he could do with it! Since he had sent us his earlier memories of Heeley, he asked us if we would like to look at it, and when we read it at our weekly meetings, we found it fascinating, and thought that many of our readers would also like to read it. Since we produced a special Supplement on Meersbrook Park last year, we thought it would be a good idea to produce a special Supplement this year, which would contain the whole of Mr. Ross's "Milestones" in one edition. It may be useful to add that we were amazed at some of the dates that were given for some events, and did some checking - only to find that he was right! As far as he can ascertain, the dates given are correct, but if any are misprinted, we shall be only too happy to correct them nn future printings of this Supplement.

Our regular booklets are still being produced at intervals, and are eagerly looked forward to by many of our readers. We use our own memories, which are put on tape at our meetings on Monday afternoons, or which we write about in our own homes, but we also use the memories of others who write to us when their memory has been jogged by something they have read in one of our booklets. If you can join us, at Heeley Bank School on Monday afternoons at 1:15 pm during term time, you will be most welcome - but if that is not possible do contact one of our members or ring Sheffield 550027.

Milestones

The earliest known map of Sheffield, drawn by Ralph Gosling in 1736 shows that the town ended on the south side of Coal Pit Lane (now Cambridge Street), with very few houses beyond Bridgehouses on the north side and from east to west between Pond Street and West Street. It is estimated that about this time there were about two thousand families in the town and of these, about two hundred and fifty families were Dissenters, Independents and Presbyterians who had two meeting houses, the Quakers also had one. There was also a Catholic preaching house attached to the manorial home of the Lord of the Manor, the Duke of Norfolk called "The Lord's House" in High Street. The parish church (now the cathedral) which had been built in 1280 on the site of an earlier church was dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul. Outside the town there were three ancient chapels at Hill Top Attercliffe, at Ecclesall and at Shrewsbury Hospital which was built in 1665, this was pulled down in 1827 and susequently the Corn Exchange was built on the site. These places along with Brightside, Wincobank, Heeley, Cherrytree, Gleadless, Dore, Norton, Woodseats and Wadsley were only hamlets a mile or two outside the town. There were very few public buildings in the town.

1700 A Town Hall was built in a corner of the Parish Churchyard - a small two storey building, the lower floor serving as a jail.

1700 The first brick-built house was erected in Pepper Alley (Surrey Street) demolished 1837.

1700 The Unitarian (Upper Chapel) was built in Norfolk Street.

1703 The Hollis Hospital for aged people was opened in an old chapel building in Snig Hill.

1703 The Parish Church was damaged in a storm and underwent extensive repairs.

1706 A Boys' Charity School was built on East Parade.

1709 The Quakers opened a chapel in Meetinghouse Lane.

1710 The stage wagon service for goods between Sheffield and London began.

1711 Burrowlee House built on Langsett Road. This was the home of the Stead family.

1714 Nether Chapel in Norfolk Street was founded.

1722 A workhouse was built on West Bar.

1725 The second Cutlers' Hall was built on the site of the first hall built in 1638.

1729 Fulwood Chapel built in Whiteley Lane.

1738 David Taylor introduced Methodism to Heeley at the home of Mr. & Mrs. Bennet.

1739 The Quakers opened a Meeting House at Hartshead.

1740 Benjamin Huntsman came to Sheffield to develop the crucible steel making process.

1740 St. Pauls Church in Pinstone Street was opened. The foundation stone was laid in 1720, but it remained unused for twenty years due to a quarrel. Even then the dome was added in later years.

1741 The first Methodist Preaching House was erected in Cheney Square, but was utterly destroyed by a mob.

1742 John Wesley preached in the mill yard at the bottom of Well Road. (Bagshaw's Mill).

1744 Another Methodist Chapel was built near Burgess Street. This was built to look like a house with chimneys; even so it was attacked but not destroyed. For some reason it ceased to be used.

1745 Yet another Methodist House was built in Pinstone Street and again attacked and destroyed.

1748 A revival took place in Methodism and preaching houses opened in Woodseats, Fulwood, Ecclesfield and Totley - Mrs. Booth's house in Woodseats and Mrs. Woodhouse's at Fulwood.

1750 Mount Pleasant was built at Sharrow for Francis Hurt Sitwell.

1756 A debtors prison was built in Scotland Street and another in Tudor Street.

1757 The Methodists bought an old warehouse in Mulberry Street and turned it into a chapel to seat sixty worshippers. It was considerably enlarged in later years and a gallery was added. The sexes were rigidly separated men on one side, women on the other. Service times were 5 a.m. and 7 p.m.

1760 Sheffield to London stage coach service started.

1760 Meersbrook House, now the Recreation Offices, was erected. It was designed by William Fairbanks for the Shore family.

1766 First Sunday School established in Heeley in Pudding Lane near what is now Anns Road.

1765 Wistaria Cottage on Cherrytree Road, built and lived in by Robert Bagshaw.

1767 Heeley Foundation School established with a garden and croft. In 1801 it was moved to a larger building in Heeley Green, was later moved into Gleadless Road and became Heeley National School.

1776 Page Hall was built by Thomas Broadbent a banker.

1779 John Wesley preached in Paradise Square.

1779 The first Methodist Minister's house built in Sheffield in a narrow lane off High Street. .

1780 The old Mulberry Street Chapel was sold and Norfolk Street Chapel was built in accordance with Wesley's own ideas. Wesley led the opening service on his twenty-fifth visit to Sheffield at the age of seventyeight years.

1784 Queen Street Congregational Church was erected.

1786 A girls' Charity School was erected in St. James Row.

1788 John Wesley paid his last visit (his thirtysecond) to Sheffield.

1788 Ecclesall Church built to replace the ancient chapel of 1629.

1789 St. James Church built in St. James Row.

1790 Howard Street Chapel opened.

1791 The Enclosure of Land Act came into force - common land and wasteland used by the people was acquired by certain private owners.

1793 The Napoleonic War started.

1794 The first army barracks at Hillsborough opened.

1791 Sheffield workers attacked Broomhall, the home of Vicar Wilkimson a wealthy landowner, for acquiring land from the poor.

1791 John Wesley died.

1792 Spence Broughton was hanged at York and his body was hung on a gibbet at Attercliffe Common.

1795 Sharrow Green Cottage at the corner of Psalter Lane and Sharrowvale Road was built by the Reverend Alex Mackenzie.

1795 The Infirmary was opened on Upperthorpe Meadows, a pleasant area on the outskirts of the town.

1798 A school was built in Pea Croft known as the Ragged School.

1801 A day school in Heeley was endowed in the sum of 14 in the will of Thomas Chapman who died aged eightyone.

1805 Carver Street Chapel was built in Cadmans Fields.

1808 A.new Town Hall was built in Waingate (now the Courthouse).

1809 The Quakers founded the Lancastrian Schools named after Joseph Lancaster.

1812 The Sunday School Union founded by James Montgomery.

1814 Townhead Street Baptist Church opened.

1815 Norton Hall built by Thomas Shore.

1818 Banner Cross Hall built on the site of an earlier hall.

1818 The first Police Force in Sheffield founded with five sergeants, fiftysix nightwatchman, and sixteen laymen.

1818 Parliament passed the "Million Act" which enabled the Church of England to build churches in newly populous areas with Government grants (St. Marys Brammall Lane and St. Georges Brookhill are two of these).

1819 The Sheffield Canal opened.

1820 The Primitive Methodists opened Bethel Chapel in an alley off Cambridge Street.

1823 Ebenezer Church opened.

1825 St. Georges Church, Brookhill built.

1825 The Boys' Charity School rebuilt

1826 Christ Church Attercliffe opened, replacing the old Chapel of Ease.

1826 The Wesleyans built the first church in Heeley at the corner of Gleadless Road and Hartley Street.

1828 A Medical School of anatomy was founded in Sheffield.

1828 St. Philips Church opened.

1828 Scotland Street Methodist Church opened.

1828 South Street Charel opened.

1830 St. Marys Church, Bramall Lane Built.

1830 Hadfield House Dam at Crookes constructed.

1830 The middle reservoir at Redmires constructed.

1831 Park Wesleyan Chapel opened.

1831 The cholera epidemic, four hundred and two people died, including the current Master Cutler.

1832 A public dispensary was opened, later to become the Royal Hospital.

1832 The Reform Bill came into force. This allowed Sheffield to have representatives in Parliament. Riots broke out on the evening of the election. The troops were called out and fired into the crowd, killing five people and injuring many more.

1832 The third Cutlers' Hall was built on-the original site.

1822 The Pudding Lane Sunday School of 1766 in Heeley was rebuilt probably on Quarry Lane.

1833 Grimesthorpe Chapel opened.

1834 Brunswick Chapel built at the bottom of the Moor.

1834 The Mount at Broomhill was built by the Wilson family of the snuff mill.

1835 The Sheffield Collegiate School was founded by the Church of England on the Broomhall Estate. Later to become the Teachers' Training College.

1835 The Municipal Corporations Act was passed by Parliament. This meant that Sheffield could be ruled by an elected council with permission to have a quarter sessions court and to appoint salaried officials in the Town Hall, by applying for a charter of incorporation as a borough. Because of the fear of higher rates a group of people who were called Chartists were against applying for a charter and by democratic means tried to put forward their own charter but failed. This led to the more extreme members of the Chartists using more violent means.

1835 Bethel Primitive Methodist Chapel built to replace an. old 1820 chapel in Cambridge Street.

1836 St Johns Church in the Park district opened.

1836 Wesley Hall, Crookes opened.

1836 The Botanical Gardens covering eighteen acres of land opened.

1837 Dr. Flory opened a school at Myrtle Springs.

1838 Christ Church, Fulwood erected.

1838 Wesleyan Proprietory Grammar School was founded in Glossop Road.

1838 Rotherham to Sheffield railway line opened.

1839 Port Mahon Chapel in St. Philips Road opened.

1840 Holy Trinity Church, Darnall opened.

1840 St. Thomas Church, Crookes built.

1842 The Ecclesall Union Hospital (workhouse) was founded, later to become Nether Edge Hospital.

1843 The Art School in Arundel Street opened.

1843 The town incorporated Heeley as part of Nether Hallam. Mr. Goodwin was elected as the first councillor to represent Heeley. The council was composed of fiftysix members, led by the first Mayor, William Jeffcock.

1843 The Chartists put forward another petition to Parliament and this time it received the Royal Assent, thus ending eight years of uprising in the town between militant Chartists, the police and the army, in which five policemen and many citizens were wounded. The leader of the Chartists, Samuel Holberry was arrested. A large amount of guns and ammunition were found in his home and in the houses of other members of the movement. Holberry was sentenced to four years imprisonment in York Castle. However, he became ill and did not complete his sentence, dying at the age of twenty-seven. He received a martyr's funeral, crowds lining the route from Attercliffe to the General Cemetery.

1846 The Church of England Churches already named were in one large Sheffield Parish until this year, when the Ecclesiastical Commisioners, with sanction from the Privy Council determined that Sheffield should be divided into twentyfive Parishes. Some of the Parishes had yet to be provided with churches, services being held in mission rooms.

1847 Two more dams were built at Redmires and two compensation dams built at Rivelin.

1847 A report on the sanitation of the town was carried out by two sanitation chemists as so much of the town's ill health was caused by bad sanitation. Their reccomendations were filed away, while the average age of people dying in Sheffield at this time was twentyfour years.

1848 The Wicker Arches built.

1848 St. Marie`s Catholic Church was built in Norfolk row.

1848 Christ Church, Heeley opened.

1850 The new barracks at Hillsborough were built, at that time they were the largest in the country.

1851 Victoria railway station opened.

1851 The Norfolk Market Hall in the Haymarket was built.

1852 The Council appointed a committee to report on drunkeness that was rife in the town. The committee recommended the refusal to sell alcoholic drink to persons under seventeen.years of age, public houses to close at 11 p.m. and to stop paying wages in public houses, which was a common practice at this time. The report, like previous reports on public health was filed and forgotten.

1856 A Sunday School was opened in View Road by Joseph Berley, later taken over by Henry Bramhall as a day school under the title of "Heeley Commercial Academy". This school ran for fifteen years until Oak Street Chapel was built.

1858 Heeley Wesley Church opened.

1858 The Primitive Methodists opened a chapel in Sheaf Street which is now the bottom of Gleadless Road.

1858 St. Simons Church in Eyre Street was opened.

1859 Cemetery Road Baptist Church was opened.

1860 Oakbrook House at Fulwood was built by Mark Firth.

1862 Glossop Road Grammar School was renamed the Wesley College.

1863 Zion Congregational Church built demolished 1987.

1864 The Great Sheffield Flood. The Dale Dyke Reservoir embankment collapsed. Two hundred and seventy people were drowned; seven hundred and ninetyeight houses destroyed four thousand, three hundred and fiftyseven houses were flooded and damaged.

1867 The Sheffield to Chesterfield railway line was opened.

1867 The Petre Street Chapel was opened.

1867 End Endcliff Hall built on the site of an old hall which was mentioned as far back as 1333. This was the home of Sir John Brown until bought by the York and Lancaster Regiment.

1866 By this year the Church of England had twentyone Churches in the Sheffield area.

1867 Dam Flask was built.

1868 John Street Chapel was opened.

1869 Agden Reservoir was built.

1870 The Education Act was passed by Parliament.

1870 Petch's School was opened at Heeley Wesley Chapel. Mr. Petch was appointed headmaster, a position he held until he died in 1913. The school was closed in 1914.

1870 The Midland Station in Sheaf Street was opened.

1870 The first houses built of stone in Tillotson Road, Heeley. They were popularly called the "Temperance Houses" because all the tenants had to be teetotal; a condition laid down by Mr. Tillotson who owned them.

1871 Oak Street Chapel erected.

1872 The Tramway Act was passed by Parliament, empowering Sheffield Tramway Company to provide five routes.

1873 The first tramway route from Ladys Bridge to Attercliffe was 'opened.

1873 Weston House and Park belonging to the Harrison family was acquired for the town.

1873 The Albert Hall in Barkers Pool was built.

1873 The first school to be built in the country under the 1870 Education Act was in Sheffield, the Newhall School at Attercliffe. In the same year schools were opened in Broomhall, Netherthorpe and Philadelphia.

1874 Further schools were built in Attercliffe, Carbrook, Crookesmoor, Lowfields and Walkley.

1874 The Girls' Charity School was moved from St. James Row to Mount Pleasant in Sharrow.

1874 The Parish of Norton was divided up and the Parish of Norton Lees was established.

1874 Gas Offices were built in Commercial Street.

1875 A Hospital for women was established, the forerunner of the Jessop Hospital.

1875 Firth Park was given to the town by Mark Firth.

1875 Heeley Toll Bar was closed.

1876 A Free Hospital for children was opened at Broomhill.

1876 St. Barnabas Church, Highfields was opened.

1876 A gas works was opened at Grimesthorpe.

1877 St Pauls Church, Norton Lees was consecrated.

1877 A steam driven tram was tried on the Attercliffe route, but slipped badly on gradients. Further trials took place, but the Council turned the idea down.

1877 Tramlines were laid to Nether Edge and Heeley.

1878 Heeley Bank School was opened.

1878 Trinity Methodist Church at Highfields was built.

1878 Firth College, Leopold Street was opened, now the Education Offices.

1878 Tram sheds at the bottom of Albert Road were opened.

1878 Jessop Hospital for Women was opened by Thomas Jessop.

1879 St. Johns Church, Ranmoor was built.

1879 Sheffield appointed a sanitary inspector.

1879 Charles Peace was hung at Armley Gaol.

1879 The Medical School of 1829, Firth College of 1879 and the Technical School were joined to become University College.

1880 The Central Secondary School was opened in Leopold Street.

1680 The Childrens Hospital in Western Bank was opened.

1881 A Hospital for smallpox and infectious diseases was built in Winter Street. This is now St. Georges Hospital for geriatric cases.

1881 The Corn Exchange on Sheaf Street was built.

1885 Endcliffe Park was opened.

1884 The last toll bar at Hunters Par was removed.

1886 The first sewage disposal treatment plant was installed. The sewage up to now had been discharged untreated into rivers. Now it was treated with lime then discharged into rivers.

1887 A serious outbreak of smallpox in the town. This caused the Town Council to build twelve wooden huts out on Lodge Moor. This was named The Borough Hospital for Smallpox and Infectious Diseases.

1887 Meersbrook Park purchased by the Town Council.

1887 Queen Victoria's Jubilee statue was erected in the Town Hall Square, now in Endcliffe Park.

1888 The Department of Applied Science building was opened in Mappin Street.

1888 The Mappin Art Gallery was built in Weston Park.

1888 The first Whitsuntide Sing was held in Meersbrook Park.

1890 Anns Road School was built, then called Gleadless Road School, now Anns Grove School.

1890 The Ruskin Museum was transferred to Meersbrook House, Meersbrook Park.

1892 Hillsborough estate and hall bought by the Corporation. The hall now Hillsborough and the estate now Hillsborough Park.

1892 Meersbrook Congregational Church was built in Chesterfield Road.

1893 The Society of Fiends acquired a meeting room in View Road, Heeley.

1893 A Sunday School was built in Hartley Street by Heeley Parish Church. This is now a workshop.

1893 The town became a city.

1895 High Street was widened.

1895 The Royal Hospital, West Street was opened; (now demolished).

1895 Valley Road Methodist Chapel, a Mission Church from Oak Street Chapel was opened.

1895 Cliffe Hall in Derbyshire Lane was used as a church.

1895 The Empire Theatre in Charles Street was opened.

1896 Kent Road Chapel was opened, first known as "The Adams Memorial Hall", now used by the Salvation Army.

1897 The Lyceum Theatre, Arundel Street was opened.

1897 Whiteley Woods was acquired by the Corporation.

1897 Anns Road Primitive Methodist Chapel was built. This replaced the old Chapel at the bottom of Gleadless Road (Sheaf Street).

1897 Heeley St. Peters Mission Church was opened on Fitzroy Road and Northcote Road. This replaced the "tin church" which was established on Richards Road in 1880. St. Peters closed in 1979 and is now known as "The Church of the Nazarene".

1897 The new Town Hall in Pinstone Street was opened by queen Victoria. It took six years to build, the foundation stone being laid by Alderman W.J. Clegg. It was built of stone that came from the Stoke Hall quarry near Grindleford. The tower is two hundred and ten feet high, with the seven foot high statue of Vulcan (the mythological god of fire and thunder) on top. Extensions were built in 1920 and officially opened by the then Prince of Wales in 1923.

1898 Meersbrook Bank Methodist Chapel opened.

1899 A Pupil Teachers' College opened in Holly Street.

1899 The first electric tram was supervised by the tramways' electrical engineer, Mr. A.L.C. Fell, accompanied by the Lord Mayor. The first ticket was issued by Mx. Tom Barker who lived in Albert Road, Heeley. The first route was from Nether Edge to Tinsley.

1900 Electric trams ran to Heeley, the terminus was Thirlwell Road.

1900 The great expansion of Sheffield had begun. Norton, Woodseats, Wadsley, Owlerton, Hillsborough, Wincobank, Tinsley and part of Ecclesfield became part of the City.

1900 The last horsedrawn tram ran, having operated for sixty-four years.

1902 The Heeley tram route was extended to Woodbank Crescent.

1902 A sanatorium was built at Crimicar Lane to deal with pulmonary diseases (tuberculosis) which were very common at this time.

1903 Norton Lees Council School was opened, later to be known as Carfield Intermediate School, now Carfield School.

1903 The tower and lodge were added to Lodge Moor Hospital.

1903 Dust bins came into use.

1904 Meersbrook Vestry Hall, Meersbrook Park Road was built.

1904 Neepsend Power Station was built.

1904 Wesley College was taken over by the Education Department and became King Edward the Seventh School (often known as "King Ted's).

1905 Blackburn Meadows sewage plant was built.

1905 Tarmacadam was used for the first time on Wincobank Avenue and Glossop Road.

1905 The first Crematorium was built at City Road.

1905 The University of Sheffield was constituted with faculties of Art, Science, Medicine and Applied Science. It was officially opened by King Edward the Seventh and Queen Alexandra.

1907 Wesley Hall at Crookes was opened.

1907 The Hippodrome in Cambridge Street was opened.

1907 Pinstone Street and the Moor were the first streets in the City to be lit by electricity.

1908 The Victoria Hall, Norfolk Street was opened.

1909 Heeley Baths were built on Rufford Road, Primrose Meadow, now known as Broadfield Road. .

1909 Millhouses Park was acquired for the City.

1909 Abbeyfield Park was acquired for the City.

1910 Woodseats Baptist Church was opened.

1910 The Union Street Picture House was built to seat one thousand people. This was the first purpose-built cinema to be opened in the City.

1910 The Glossop Road Baths were opened.

1910 The Head Post Office was opened in Fitzalan Square.

1911 St. Chads Church, Woodseats was built.

1911 Mixed bathing was allowed for two days a week on an. experimental basis at Glossop Road Baths.

1911 The first totally enclosed tram car was built.

1911 Further Picture Houses were built this year. The Heeley Electric Palace (Heeley Palace), Woodseats Picture Palace, The Phoenix at Hillsborough and the Electra in Fitzalan Square.

1911 A Boys' Charity School was built in Psalter Lane, known as the "Bluecoat School".

1911 Sheffield became the largest city in Yorkshire.

1911 Bingham Park was acquired for the City.

1912 The Cinema House, Barkers Pool was opened.

1913 The first motor bus ran to Lodge Moor.

1914 The outbreak of World War One.

1914 Dr. Leonard Hedley Burrows was enthroned as the first Bishop of Sheffield.

1918 The War ended, Armistice signed November 11th.

1919 Only eight houses were built in Sheffield during this year. In the next twenty years to 1939 over forty-eight thousand were built, with another fourteen thousand planned. During this period Methodist Churches were built in Darnall, Shiregreen, Parson Cross, Wybourn, Arbourthorne, Stephen Hill Crosspool and Frecheville, all on new housing estates built to rid Sheffield of its slums. Some of these churches were built with the help of money raised from the sale of downtown churches.

1919 Stainless steel was discovered by Harry Brearley who was later knighted.

1920 The Wicker Cinema was opened, the first in the city to have air conditioning.

1920 The Abbeydale Cinema was opened.

1921 The coal Strike. Sixty thousand were unemployed in Sheffield. Relief work was organised by the City Council, roads were built on the outskirts, and Abbey Lane was one. The Meersbrook Park tennis courts, above the bowling greens was another scheme.

1921 Gleadless was incorporated in the City. As there was a Gleadless Road School there, Gleadless Road School, Heeley became Anns Road School.

1921 Skelton's Sheaf Bank works were destroyed by fire.

1922 The York and Lancaster War Memorial was erected in Weston Park.

1922 A local radio station, 6FL was opened in Corporation Street.

1923 The twenties were years of much poverty and suffering. Gang wars took place; tossing rings (a simple form of gambling) were set up. Razor slashing and shooting became commonplace. In 1925 F.W. Plommer was stabbed to death by a gang. Two men were sentence to death and three other men were sentenced to seven and ten years imprisonment. Police "Flying squads" were introduced by the Chief Constable Colonel Hall Dalewood. His successor Percy Sillitoe really cracked down and the gangs were broken up.

1924 Ridgeway Road was built from Manor Top to Gleadless Church.

1925 The chains and stumps were removed from the top ends of Albert Road.

1925 The Regent Cinema was built in Barkers Pool.

1925 The War Memorial was erected in Barkers Pool.

1925 Sheffield United won the F.A. Cup.

1925 An open-air bus station was opened in Pond Street.

1925 Alderman J.G. Graves gave Graves Park to the City.

1926 The General Strike took place in May.

1926 Dialling system was introduced on telephones.

1926 The first labour council was elected in Sheffield.

1926 The population of Sheffield was now over half a million.

1926 Since the war there had been great demand for new houses to relieve Sheffield of its slums and by 1926 over five thousand houses had been built. Even so there were still over three thousand families on the waiting list.

1927 Greyhound racing was started at Darnall.

1928 The first talking film was shown in Sheffield at the Union Street Cinema. The film was "The Jazz Singer".

1929 Concord Park was opened.

1929 Banner Cross Methodist Church was opened.

1930 Psalter Lane Church was opened; taking over the activities of the South Street Chapel which was demolished.

1932 Bents Green Methodist Church was built.

1933 Slum clearance took place in Pond Street, all back to back houses. Rawson's Brewery was also demolished.

1934 The City Hall was opened.

1934 The Central Library and the Graves Art Gallery were opened by the Duchess of York (now the Queen Mother).

1934 A scheme for regrouping the Methodist Churches in Sheffield teas adopted. The "Radiation Scheme" which divided the City into circuits containing central, suburban and country churches.

1935 Sheffield Wednesday won the F.A. Cup.

1930 The last troops were moved out of Hillsborough Barracks .

1934 The Prince of 'dales (later the Duke of Windsor) opened Prince of Wales Road on the Manor Estate.

1935 The Theatre Royal, Arundel Street was destroyed by fire.

1936 Millhouses Methodist Church was opened.

1936 The first H.M.S. Sheffield was launched.

1938 St. Pauls Church, Pinstone Street was demolished and rebuilt on the Arbourthorne Estate. The site was earmarked for Town Hall extensions, but was temporarily made into a Garden, this was at the time of Munich and the gardens were popularly called the Peace Gardens. These gardens were so popular, that after the war when the time came to enlarge the Town Hall a site behind the gardens in Norfolk Street was used.

1938 War fever was rife. Gas masks were issued trenches dug in parks and anti- aircraft guns were mounted at various points.

1939 War was declared on Germany.

1940 The Sheffield Blitz, December 12th-13th and December 15th. 668 civilians and 25 servicemen were killed, 92 people missing and 1817 people injured. 2,849 houses were destroyed, 2,990 badly damaged and 71,785 slightly damaged. Eight schools were destroyed and 106 damaged. 1,218 business premises were destroyed and 2,255 were damaged. Eighteen churches including Valley Road Mission were destroyed and 90 damaged. 206 water mains were broken, 8 gasholders destroyed, 50 electric sub-staions and 850 street lamps destroyed. 31 trams and 22 buses were wrecked.

1940 The King and Queen visited Sheffield to see the damage and visit rest centres including Anns Road Chapel rest centre.

1940 Walshs converted the Mount at Broomhill into a department store. This was later taken over by British Steel as offices.

1944 Under the Education Act of 1944, the City provided twenty-seven Secondary Modern Schools and three Colleges of Further Education, Richmond, Granville and Shirecliffe. A College Of Technology was built later and joined to the College of Art, later became the Polytechnic. Later still Stannington Engineering College was built.

1945 The War with Germany and Japan ended.

1945 Sheffield had its first muncipal election since 1938. The first Parliamentary election was also held.

1946 The City resumed its slum clearance policy, in addition to replacing blitzed homes. Over 3,000 new houses were built between 1946 and 1949.

1946 Sheffield adopted a clean air policy, all new commercial buildings had to conform to this.

1946 A bronze collar was fitted on the War Memorial with the dates 1914-18 and 1939-45.

1947 The Corn Exchange on Sheaf Street was destroyed by fire.

1947 Sheffield was in the grip of heavy snowfalls and icy temperatures for three months from, January to March.

1947 Oak Street Chapel was destroyed by fire in December.

1947 The "Master Cutler" train from Sheffield to London commenced.

1947 Sheffield University was extended.

1948 Oak Street Chapel and Anns Road Chapel Congregations joined and became St. Andrews using the Anns Road premises.

1948 Electricity was nationalised.

1948 The Railways were nationalised and became British Rail.

1949 Sweets and chocolate came off ration after seven years.

1949 Thornbridge Teachers' Training College was opened.

1950 The steel industry was nationalised.

1953 Flats were built at Park Hill, Woodside, Norfolk Park, Gleadless Valley, Greenhill, Norton and Woodhouse.

1953 Mount Everest was climbed by Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tensing.

1955 Hyde Park flats were built.

1956 Kent Road Chapel was closed; the building was taken over by the Salvation Army.

1957 Sputnik 1 the first unmanned space rocket launched into space by the Russians.

1958 Heeley Wesley Chapel was closed ~ (now the Makki Mosque a Muslim girls' day school)

1960 The first communication satellite, Echo 1 launched into space by U.S.A. followed by Telstar.

1960 Last tramcar ran from Tinsley to Beauchief and back. There were fifteen trams in the parade led by tram number 349 specially illuminated. The last tram to run into the Tinsley sheds was number 222 its destination Board read "Cemetery Gates". Sheffield's newest tram number 501 was also in the parade, this can now be seen at Crich Tramways Museum.

1961 The Cinema House in Barkers Pool was closed.

1961 The first man in space was Yuri Gagarin of Russia who did one orbit in spacecraft Vostok 1.

1961 Gleadless Valley Methodist Church was opened.

1961 There were Christmas lights in the City for the first time

1962 In February a hurricane hit Sheffield, 118 houses were destroyed and 91,598 were damaged, several people were killed by falling masonry.

1962 The Castle Market was opened.

1962 Parkway Wholesale Market was opened.

1962 New research laboratories were opened at Lodge Moor Hospital.

1962 A school for spastic children was opened at Norton.

1963 A heliport was opened at Shirecliffe.

1963 Greenhill Library was opened.

1963 The Hippodrome Cinema in Cambridge Street was closed. The last film shown was "Gone With the Wind".

1963 Cole Brothers new store was opened in Barkers Pool.

1963 St. Marks Church, Broomhill was rebuilt.

1964 Sorby Hall, University hall of residence was opened.

1965 Sir Winston Churchill died in January.

1965 The Hallam Tower Fotel was opened.

1965 Concessionary fares for old age pensioners were started.

1965 The Silver Blades ice rink on Queens Road was opened.

1965 The First strike of natural gas was made in the north sea.

1965 The first man walked in space, Alexei Leonov.

1965 St. Peters Church, Greenhill was opened

1966 The Grosvenor House Hotel was opened.

1966 Sheffield's boundaries were extended to include Frecheville, Beighton, Hackenthorpe and Birley.

1966 The University Arts Tower was opened by the Queen Mother.

1966 World Cup football matches were played at Owlerton.

1966 Subscriber Trunk Dialling (S.T.D.) was introduced.

1966 Eldon House, Charter Row was Built.

1966 The unmanned spacecraft Lunar 9 landed on the moon.

1967 Mosborough was brought within the City boundary.

1967 Norton-Jordanthorpe Parkway opened to traffic.

1967 Radio Sheffield commenced broadcasting.

1967 Postal coding began.

1967 The Civic Amenities Act came into force. Preservation areas were named. Norton, Broomhall, Beauchief Hall, Oakes Park, Paradise Square, Greenhill village, Ranmoor, Dore area, Fulwood Hall, Bishops House and Woodhouse Cross and stocks.

1968 Charter Square, Castle Square (the hole in the road), Furnival Gate underpass and Arundel Gate were opened to general use.

1968 Greenhill Parkway was opened.

1968 Newfield Green Library was opened.

1968 The Yorkshire Television Studio in Charter Square was opened.

1969 The Duke of Edinburgh opened the Engineering Training School in Petre Street.

1969 Emley Moor television mast collapsed.

1969 The Lunar Module "The Eagle" separated from the Apollo 2 spacecraft and landed with its two man crew Neil Armstrong and Edwin Alldrin on the moon at the Sea of Tranquility. Armstrong took the first step made by man on another solar body.

1969 The Systeme Internationale d'Unities (International System of Unities) which had been agreed on at an international conference in 1960 now began to take effect. The imperial system of measurement was to be phased out and the S.I. system (a new form of the metric system) would take its place to become the international language of measurement.

1970 The development of the Tillotson Estate in Heeley took place.

1970 The Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet was opened.

1971 The conversion of Heeley to natural gas started.

1973 Fargate was made a pedstrian precinct.

1973 Alderman Mrs. Strafford became the lord Mayor. The Civic Service was held at St. Andrews Methodist Church. The Rev. Alan Ogle was the Lord Mayor's Chaplain.

1973 Britain joined the European Economic Community (the E.E.C.).

1974 Sheffield was made a Metropolitan District taking in Stocksbridge, Bradfield, Wortley and all of Ecclesfield.

1974 Radio Hallam went on the air.

1974 The Royal Hallamshire Hospital was officially opened by the Prince of Wales.

1975 The Shepherd Wheel in Whiteley Woods was taken over by the City Museums.

1975 Abbeydale Cinema House, one of the last suburban cinemas was closed.

1976 The Moor was made into a pedestrian precinct.

1976 The restored Bishops House was opened as a museum.

1976 The clearance of houses and rebuilding in Upper Heeley was started.

1977 The World Professional Snooker Championship was held in the Crucible Theatre. John Spencer was the winner.

1977 The Town Hall extension was opened.

1980 Seventysix square miles of moorland around Sheffield closed because of fires.

1980 The Royal Infirmary was closed. Departments transferred to the Royal Hallamshire Hospital.

1980 Free travel started on the "Bendibus" on a city centre circular route.

1980 The Fiesta night club on Arundel Gate closed.

1980 Banner's store at Attercliffe closed after a hundred years of trading.

1980 Wadsley Bridge Methodist Church closed,

1980 The new St Thomas Church, Crookes was opened.

1981 The bendibus was withdrawn.

1981 On December 14-15th ten inches of snow fell on Sheffield.

1982 Schofields, formerly Cockaynes store was closed.

1982 The Falklands War. Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands. H.M.S. Sheffield was sunk.

1982 Woolco in the Haymarket closed.

1982 Sheffield held its first Marathon race.

1982 The Tidal Traffic Scheme on London Road and Queens Road came into operation.

1982 A forty-two million pounds sewage scheme was officially opened.

1982 The Classic Cinema in Fitzalan Square was closed.

1982 The University Octagon Cente was built.

1983 The Little Nipper bus services began.

1983 July of this month was the hottest month for over three hundred years.

1983 Thos. W. Ward's Albion Works were closed.

1984 Hadfields Ltd. steel works were closed.

1984 The coal strike which lasted for a year, was begun.

1984 Fire destroyed the old Classic Cinema (originally the Electra) in Fitzalan Square. .

1984 The City Council introduced the Passport to Leisure scheme.

1984 The Gladstone Buildings in Church Street were badly damaged by fire whilst being renovated.

1985 The Town Hall or St. Pauls Gardens were officially re-named the Peace Gardens.

1985 Billy Graham, the American evangelist held a seven day campaign at Bramall Lane football ground.

1985 A fire took place at the National Freight Warehouses which did ten million pouns worth of damage.

1986 The Morning Telegraph newspaper ceased publication.

1987 Sheffield won its campaign to host the World Student Games in 1991. The swimming pool and other sports complexes are being built in the Pond Street area. Other stadiums are being built in the Meadowhall area.

1987 Debenham's rebuilt their store on the Moor.

1987 Meersbrook Park was officially opened by the Lord Mayor, one hundred years late.

1988 The population of Sheffield was estimated to be five hundred and forty thousand, five hundred.

1988 Except in the south west area all school sixth forms were closed and the Tertiary Education scheme was adopted in Sheffield. Six new Colleges of Further Education came into being.

(1) Castle College, the old Granville College

(2) Norton College, the old Rowlinson Campus

(3) Parkwood College, the old Shirecliffe College

(4) Parson Cross College, the old Colley School and Institute

(5) Loxley College, the old Stannington and Stocksbridge Colleges

(6) Stradbroke College, the old Richmond College.

1988 Sheffield City is divided into six Parliamentary Constituencies Hillsborough, Central, Hallam, Heeley, Brightside and Attercliffe. There are five Labour M.Ps. and one Conservative. The City has twentynine Electoral Wards Stocksbridge, Chapel Green, Owlerton, Nethershire, Southey green, Firth Park, Hillsborough, Walkley, South Wortley, Eurngreave, Darnall, Castle, Netherthorpe, Manor, Sharrow, Broomhill, Hallam, Ecclesall, Nether Edge, Park, Intake, Birley, Handsworth, Mosborough, Heeley, Beauchief, Norton, Dore and Brightside. There are three councillors to each ward, eightyseven in all. There are Sixtyfive Labour councillors, thirteen Conservative and nine Liberal.

Monarchs who reigned during the Emergence of a City

1689 to 1702 William the third

1702 to 1714 Queen Anne

1714 to 1727 George the first

1727 to 1760 George the third

1760 to 1820 George the third

1820 to 1830 George the fourth

18 30 to 1837 William the fourth

1857 to 1901 Queen Victoria

1901 to 1910 Edward the seventh

1910 to 1936 George the fifth

1936 for 325 days only, then abdicated, Edward the eighth

1936 to 1952 George the sixth

1952 onward Queen Elizabeth the second

Heely Artisans

C.T. Dixon Painter, His work can be seen in High Hazels Museum.

C.G. Roe Painter of horses and dogs.

Charles Dixon Naturalist, son of C.T. Dixon, author of books on birdlife.

Ralph Gosling Schoolmaster and Surveyor, published the first map of Sheffield.

Robert Murray Gilchrist Novelist.

Charles Green Sculptor, art craftsman, teacher at Sheffield School of Art, he designed the Lord Mayor's chain of office and the font in Sheffield Cathedral.

Godfrey Sykes Sculptor and designer, did work on South Kensington Museum, designed the gates in Weston Park also the Sykes Memorial Column in Weston Park.

Young Mitchell Head of Sheffield College of Art.

Jean Mitchell Daughter of Young Mitchell painted several portraits of Sheffield citizens.

Alfred Stevens Designer of Wellington's monument in St. Pauls Cathedral.

Hugh Hutton Stannus Sculptor assisted Stevens on Wellington's monument.

Arthur Lismer Secretary of the Heeley Art Club for a number of years, became head of the School of Art in Victoria, Vancouver, Canada.

Miss A.E. Seaton Landscape painter.

Other Artists Joshua Fletcher, Ernest Linney, F.W. Topham and W. Petch.

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